Cuidado canguro/piel a piel, alojamiento conjunto, apego, cargar el bebé, ¿envolver al bebé?

Piel a piel es cuando el bebé se coloca inmediatamente sobre el abdomen desnudo de su madre y permanece allí sin interrupción durante al menos una o dos horas o hasta el final de la primera sesión de amamantamiento. Esto debería suceder con todos los bebés, nacidos por vía vaginal o por cesárea. Tiene un impacto positivo en los parámetros fisiológicos y psicosociales en la madre y en el bebé, facilitando la expresión del comportamiento previo a la alimentación, al amamantamiento y el vínculo.

Iniciativa Hospitales Amigos de la Niñez (IHAN) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud/UNICEF

  • Paso 4: Facilitar el contacto piel a piel inmediato e ininterrumpido y ayudar a las madres a iniciar la lactancia lo antes posible después del nacimiento.
  • Paso 7: Permitir que las madres y sus bebés permanezcan juntos y practiquen el alojamiento conjunto las 24 horas del día.

El contacto piel a piel debe practicarse en condiciones seguras para garantizar el bienestar del bebé durante estas horas críticas de la vida.

Condiciones seguras en la clínica, hospital o maternidad

Así como la enfermera supervisaba al recién nacido en la sala de recién nacidos ahora debe hacerlo mientras el recién nacido está sobre la madre en la sala de partos o en el quirófano. La observación se realiza para la madre y el bebé juntos en lugar de hacerlo por separado. Los profesionales de la salud son responsables de comprobar que el recién nacido respire adecuadamente, que la coloración sobre su piel sea adecuada y que pueda mover libremente la cabeza y el pecho.

Inmediatamente después del nacimiento

  • Quitar la bata para tener el mayor espacio posible para que el bebé expanda su cuerpo sobre el pecho de mamá.
  • Colocar inmediatamente el bebé desnudo sobre el pecho desnudo de mamá, sin secarlo, ya que esta es la transición más segura desde el útero. Esto facilita la armonia fisiológica en la transición ex útero, mantiene la energía del bebé y reduce su estrés al nacer.
  • El bebé se coloca verticalmente en medio de los senos de la madre (después del parto vaginal) u horizontalmente sobre los senos de la madre (en la cesárea). Asegurar de que la mayor parte del cuerpo del bebé esté en contacto con el pecho de la madre. Esto ayuda a las hormonas a activarse, evita la presión sobre el pecho y facilita la respiración.
  • Evitar la posición lateral, ya que impide una respiración óptima.
  • Asegurar de que el recién nacido pueda respirar fácilmente por la nariz y la boca y que sus secreciones se muevan libremente sin aspirar las vías respiratorias.
  • Asegurar que el bebé pueda levantar fácilmente la cabeza y el pecho por sí mismo en todo momento.
  • Secar completamente la espalda y la cabeza del bebé.
  • Todas las mantas mojadas se quitan y se reemplazan por una sola manta tibia y seca para evitar el sobrecalentamiento de la díada madre/bebé y para minimizar la evaporación de la piel del bebé. También se puede colocar un gorro al bebé y así no cubrirle la cabeza con la sábana.
  • Dejar el cordón umbilical largo para que las pinzas no queden entre la madre y el bebé.
  • Si es cesárea, la pareja coloca la mano directamente en el trasero del bebé o sujeta firmemente su muslo para evitar que se resbale.
  • La mamá y su pareja observan a su bebé: respiración, coloración de la piel, respuesta a la estimulación.
  • Para una mejor transición del bebé ex útero, suavizar las luces y mantener los ruidos al mínimo.

Seguridad del contacto piel a piel después del periodo del nacimiento

  • Superficie para dormir o descansar: sin colchón blando; sin cama de agua; sin sofá o silla de descanso a menos que esté completamente despierto
  • La superficie de descanso/sueño de mamá/papá debe elevarse entre 30 y 45 grados.
  • Quitar la ropa de cama suave alrededor del bebé: almohadas; cojines, barandillas, que no haya espacio cerca la pared
  • Es de riesgo si la mamá o su pareja tienen obesidad; si los senos de la madre son muy grandes; fumar incluso si no está en presencia del bebé; uso de drogas o medicamentos; mamá/pareja muy cansada que corre el riesgo de falta de vigilancia.
  • Quien sostiene al bebé está despierto.
  • No envolver al bebé (swaddling).
  • Tomar siestas durante el día para no estar demasiado cansada durante la noche.

Piel a piel entre madre y bebé en la cesárea

Efectos fisiológicos
  • La temperatura del bebé: siempre óptima, muy diferente a si el bebé está envuelto, si está debajo del calentador o en pijama en una cuna.
  • La temperatura de la madre: siempre en reciprocidad con la temperatura del bebé.
  • Bebé hipotérmico: piel a piel con la madre calienta al bebé mejor que el calentador o isolette
  • Los pies del bebé están más cálidos, estadísticamente significativo; una indicación de la reducción del estrés de nacer
  • Mejor oxigenación durante los primeros 90 minutos de vida
  • Glucemia del bebé óptima
  • Expulsión placentaria rápida
  • Organización neuromotora: los bebés son más estables
  • Analgésico: reducción del dolor durante procedimientos dolorosos, por ejemplo, inyección de vitamina K
Efectos psicosociales
  • El bebé llora menos: durante los primeros 90 minutos de vida y durante los primeros 3 días y los primeros 3 meses
  • Interacción temprana: más posiciones de frente, más contactos visuales, más comunicaciones verbales maternas; los recién nacidos están más tranquilos y más alertas después del primer llanto y vocalizan más
  • Comportamientos afectivos maternos: observados con mayor frecuencia; las madres sostienen a su bebé más cerca, son más suaves en sus intentos de agarrar y sostener a sus bebés, hablan en voz suave y responden más a las señales de su bebé
  • Facilita el bienestar materno; el nivel de gastrina es menor, el nivel de oxitocina mayor
  • Apego: se observa fácilmente, probablemente después de la activación repetida de oxitocina y
    opioides
  • Reducción significativa de negligencia de los padres en poblaciones vulnerables; menos abandono infantil
  • Estado de ánimo de la madre: mejor en los días 3 y 4 que en las madres que no experimentaron piel con piel inmediata e ininterrumpida al nacer
  • Al año de edad, más interacción madre-hijo; mayor sensibilidad materna hacia su hijo; el niño se autorregula más fácilmente
  • Mayor satisfacción materna
Efectos sobre la lactancia materna
  • Comportamientos previos a la alimentación: se facilita la secuencia innata del recién nacido
  • Inicio del amamantamiento: la lengua se coloca espontáneamente cuando abre la boca
  • Masaje de los senos con la barbilla o los puños del bebé: aumenta el nivel de oxitocina y la cantidad de
    succión al seno
  • Olores de los senos: reconocimiento temprano del olor materno por parte de los bebés
  • Mejor succión: después de una hora de contacto piel a piel inmediato e ininterrumpido; menos congestión mamaria.
  • Producción de leche adecuada en el día 3, cuando la primera toma ocurre durante las primeras 2 horas después del nacimiento.
  • Pérdida de peso del bebé: menos en comparación con los bebés envueltos; El peso al nacer se recupera en 3 a 5 días.
  • Exclusividad de la lactancia materna: vínculo significativo entre la duración del contacto piel con piel y lactancia materna exclusiva al alta
  • Duración de la lactancia materna: demostrada estadísticamente hasta los 6 meses, posiblemente relacionada con un mejor comienzo.

Los bebés que han sido separados de sus madres al nacer y luego reunidos 2 horas después se comportan como si todavía estuvieran en la sala con las enfermeras. Las evidencias muestran un período sensible dentro de las primeras 2 horas después del nacimiento; La separación inicial seguida de la reunión después de 2 horas no compensa la falta de contacto piel con piel inmediato al nacer.

Cuando las madres permiten que sus bebés vayan a la sala de cuidados infantiles, ellas entendieron que esa era la norma, al parecer debido a que el personal hospitalario sugirió que no era importante que mamá y bebé permanecieran juntos. En cambio cuando la madre comparte la habitación con el bebé y es asistida por el personal de salud, se encontró una diferencia significativa en el éxito de la lactancia.

La separación de la madre y el bebé

  • Aumenta la depresión posparto
  • La madre muestra menos respuesta a las necesidades del bebé
  • Aumenta el abandono del bebé
  • El efecto negativo de dos horas de separación seguido al nacimiento no se compensa con practicar el alojamiento conjunto dos horas después
  • El bebé ingiere menos leche materna y más fórmula artificial
  • El bebé pierde más peso

El cuidado canguro y el piel a piel

Forma natural de cuidar bebés en el que bebé se coloca piel con piel contra el pecho de la madre (o del padre) debajo de la ropa o una manta. Si el bebé es prematuro se llama canguro porque se practica mas allá de las primeras dos horas, si el bebé está ingresado lejos de mamá, preguntar a los médicos y al personal de enfermería cuando puede abrazar su bebé.

Ayuda a regular
  • el ritmo cardíaco
  • la frecuencia respiratoria
  • la temperatura
  • el estrés
  • los niveles de saturación de oxígeno
Promueve
  • nutrición óptima
  • protección de infecciones
  • estimulación de los 5 sentidos
  • en la transición a la lactancia: mientras está siendo abrazado, el bebé puede intentar acariciar, lamer o mamar

Cargar al bebé

la mayoría de los bebés necesitan estar pegaditos a su madre y otras personas de confianza por diversas razones: calor, seguridad, amor. Le podrían decirle que no lo acostumbre a los brazos, pero es totalmente ilógico ya que el bebé al nacer tiene 40 semanas cargadito en el vientre de su mamá. Los primeros 3 meses se les llama el cuarto trimestre o periodo de exterogestación. Estos tres meses todavía el bebé es inmaduro y sostenerlo en brazos es imprescindible para su desarrollo.

https://youtu.be/No6dhFiRPQU

Envolver al bebé (Swaddling)

Envolver al bebé es usado por algunos para lograr que el bebé duerma más tiempo, pero estudios han encontrado que esta práctica tiene efectos negativos en cuanto al peso ganado al comparar estos bebés con los que están con sus madres en vez de envueltos. Y es que la madre de un bebé envuelto no puede seguir las señales de hambre que muestra el bebé. Esto causa que a la madre se le llenen demasiado los senos y que la producción de leche disminuya.

Aunque esta técnica favorece la continuidad del sueño, se asocia con mayor respuesta al estrés ambiental auditivo y la circulación del bebé también se puede ver afectada. Su temperatura se afecta también.

Se ha relacionado envolver al bebé con tasas elevadas de neumonía, especialmente durante el período neonatal.

Un estudio en ratas neonatales encontró un aumento en la prevalencia de displasia congénita de cadera.

Si la han separado de su bebé y se lo traen envuelto,  póngalo piel a piel contra su cuerpo y ahí todo el mundo del bebé cambia a un mundo amigable para el, con el cuerpo de su madre contra el suyo en “su” mundo. Un cuerpo suave, calientito, con los sonidos  ya conocidos de su corazón y de su voz, su piel, su olor, sus ojos amorosos, su leche.

El swaddling o envolver al bebé restringe sus movimientos y le dificulta ser parte activa del proceso, toma menos leche en 24 horas, no puede proteger su vía aérea ni mover su cabeza para protegerse; solo en Estados Unidos se reportaron 17 muertes causadas por el swaddling entre el 2004 y 2011 (Consumer Product Safety Commission).

Referencias sobre alojamiento conjunto

En inglés

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol Committee. ABM Clinical Protocol #2 (2007 revision): guidelines for hospital discharge of the breastfeeding term newborn and mother: “the going home protocol” Breastfeed Med. 2007 Sep;2(3):158-65

So Yoon Ahn, M.D., Sun Young Ko, M.D., Kyung Ah Kim, M.D., Yeon Kyung Lee, M.D. and Son Moon Shin, M.D. The effect of rooming-in care on the emotional stability of newborn infants Korean Journal of Pediatrics Vol. 51, No. 12, 2008

Ball HL, Ward-Platt MP, Heslop E, Leech SJ, Brown KA. Randomised trial of infant sleep location on the postnatal wardArch Dis Child. 2006 Dec;91(12):1005-10.

Bystrova K, Ivanova V, Edhborg M, Matthiesen AS, Ransjö-Arvidson AB, Mukhamedrakhimov R, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Widström AM. Early contact versus separation: effects on mother-infant interaction one year laterBirth. 2009 Jun;36(2):97-109.

Bystrova K, Widström AM, Matthiesen AS, Ransjö-Arvidson AB, Welles-Nyström B, Vorontsov I, Uvnäs-Moberg K. Early lactation performance in primiparous and multiparous women in relation to different maternity home practices. A randomised trial in St. Petersburg. Int Breastfeed J. 2007 May 8;2:9.

Crenshaw J. Care practice #6: no separation of mother and baby, with unlimited opportunities for breastfeeding. J Perinat Educ. 2007 Summer;16(3):39-43.

DiGirolamo AM, Grummer-Strawn LM, Fein S. Maternity care practices: implications for breastfeeding. Birth. 2001 Jun;28(2):94-100.

Goodman K, DiFrisco E. Achieving baby-friendly designation: step-by-step. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2012 May-Jun;37(3):146-52; quiz 152-4.

Hannula L, Kaunonen M, Tarkka MT. A systematic review of professional support interventions for breastfeeding. J Clin Nurs. 2008 May;17(9):1132-43.

Hisgen S, Dennison BA, Fitzpatrick E, Waniewski PA. Improving Maternity Care Practices in New York: Answering the Surgeon General’s Call to ActionBreastfeed Med. 2012 Oct;7:337-42.

Jaafar SH, Lee KS, Ho JJ. Separate care for new mother and infant versus rooming-in for increasing the duration of breastfeedingCochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;9

Jackson EB: The Development of Rooming-in at YaleThe Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine , Volume 25 (6) PubMed Central – Jun 1, 1953

Keefe MR: The impact of infant rooming-in on maternal sleep at night, J Obstet Gynecol Neonat Nurs 17:122–126, 1988.

Keefe MR: Comparison of neonatal nighttime sleep-wake patterns in nursery versus rooming-in environments, Nurs Res 36:140–144, 198

Lee YM, Song KH, Kim YM, Kang JS, Chang JY, Seol HJ, Choi YS, Bae CW. Complete rooming-in care of newborn infants. Korean J Pediatr. 2010 May;53(5):634-8.

Lindenberg CS, Atroloa RC, Jimenez V. The effect of early postpartum mother–infant contact and breastfeeding promotion on the incidence and continuation of breastfeeding. Int J Nurs Stud 1990;27:179–186.

Merten S, Dratva J, Ackermann-Liebrich U. Do baby-friendly hospitals influence breastfeeding duration on a national level? Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):e702-8.

Pechlivani F, Vassilakou T, Sarafidou J, Zachou T, Anastasiou CA, Sidossis LS. Prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay in the area of Athens, Greece. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Jul;94(7):928-34.

Pérez-Escamilla R, Pollitt E, Lönnerdal B, Dewey KG. Infant feeding policies in maternity wards and their effect on breast-feeding success: an analytical overview. Am J Public Health. 1994 Jan;84(1):89-97.

Perez-Escamilla R, Segura-Millán S, Pollitt E, Dewey KG. Effect of the maternity ward system on the lactation success of low-income urban Mexican women. Early Hum Dev. 1992 Nov;31(1):25-40.

Procianoy RS, Fernandes-Filho PH, Lazaro L, Sartori NC, Drebes S: The influence of rooming-in on breastfeeding. J Trop Pediatr 29:112–114, 1983

Rapley G. Keeping mothers and babies together— Breastfeeding and bonding. RCM Midwives 2002;5: 332–334.

Smith PB, Moore K, Peters L. Implementing baby-friendly practices: strategies for success. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2012 Jul-Aug;37(4):228-33, quiz 234-5.

Svensson K, Matthiesen AS, Widström AM. Night rooming-in: who decides? An example of staff influence on mother’s attitude. Birth. 2005 Jun;32(2):99-106.

Theofilogiannakou M, Skouroliakou M, Gounaris A, Panagiotakos D, Markantonis SL. Breast-feeding in Athens, Greece: factors associated with its initiation and duration. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Sep;43(3):379-84.

Waldenstrom U, Swenson A: Rooming-in at night in the postpartum ward, Midwifery 7:82–91, 1991.

Welch MG, Hofer MA, Brunelli SA, Stark RI, Andrews HF, Austin J, Myers MM; Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) Trial Group.  Family nurture intervention (FNI): methods and treatment protocol of a randomized controlled trial in the NICUBMC Pediatr. 2012 Feb 7;12:14.

Yamauchi Y, Yamanouchi I: The relationship between rooming-in/not rooming-in and breastfeeding variables, Acta Paediatr Scand 79:1017–1022, 1990.

Referencias en inglés sobre el apego

5 Reasons Attachment Theory is Important for Professionals and Parents. “I Matter” Project

Behrens KY, Hesse E, Main M. Mothers’ attachment status as determined by the Adult Attachment Interview predicts their 6-year-olds’ reunion responses: a study conducted in JapanDev Psychol. 2007 Nov;43(6):1553-67.

Bretherton, I. The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Developmental Psychology (1992), 28, 750-775

Landa S1, Duschinsky R. Letters from ainsworth: contesting the ‘organization’ of attachment. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 May;22(2):172-7.

Mary Ainsworth

Salter Ainsworth M, Bowlby J. An Ethological Approach to Personality Development American Psychologist. Vol. 46 (4) April 1991, pp. 333-341.

Resource Library Attachment Treatment and Training Institute, PLLC

Sitios en internet

Portal de Formación en Método Madre Canguro

Referencias sobre método canguro y piel con piel

Bebés canguro. Nathalie Charpak,  2010

El Método Canguro no es solo para prematuros. El parto es nuestro.

Estudios y articulos científicos en castellano.  El parto es nuestro.

Gómez Papí A: El poder de las caricias Video Liga de la Leche Euskadi, 8 octubre 2011

Gómez Papí A, Pallás CR, Aguayo J. El método de la madre canguro. Unidad Neonatal. Hospital Universitario Tarragona “Joan XXIII”.

Gómez Papí A, Pallás CR, Aguayo J. El método de la madre canguro. Acta Pediatr Esp. 2007; 65: 286-291

Método madre canguro, guía práctica, OMS. 2004

Mi mamá es un canguro , José Benlliure y Susana Ramirez

Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Más allá de la supervivencia: Prácticas integrales durante la atención del parto , beneficiosas para la nutrición y la salud de madres y niños. Washington, D.C.: OPS ©2007

En inglés

Sitios en internet

Kangaroo Mother Care

Libros

Dr. Adolfo Gómez Papí: El poder de las caricias. Liga de la Leche Euskadi

Jill Bergman, Nils Bergman, Hold Your Prem

Susan Ludington-Hoe, Kangaroo Care: The Best You Can Do to Help Your Preterm Infant

Otras referencias piel con piel y cuidado canguro

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2014). ABM Clinical Protocol #1: Guidelines for blood glucose monitoring and treatment of hypoglycemia in term and late-term neonates. Breastfeeding Medicine, 9 (4), 173-179.

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (2010). ABM Clinical Protocol #23: Non-pharmacologic management of procedure-related pain in the breastfeeding infant. Breastfeeding Medicine, 5 (6), 315-319.

Acolet D, Sleath K & Whitelaw A (1989). Oxygenation, heart rate and temperature in low birth weight infant during skin-to-skin contact with their mothers. Acta Paediatrica, 78(2), 189-193.

Aghdas K, Talat K & Sepideh B (2014). Effect of immediate and continuous mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on breastfeeding self-efficacy of primiparous women: A randomised control trial. Women and Birth, 27 (1), 37-40

Ali Z & Lowry M (1981). Early maternal-child contact: Effects on later behaviour. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23 (3), 337-345.

Anderson G, Moore E, Hepworth J & Bergman N (2003). Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database System Review, 2, CD003519.

Andres, V, Garcia, P, Rimet, Y, Nicaise, C, & Simeoni, U (2011). Apparent life-threatening events in presumably healthy newborns during early skin-to-skin contact. Pediatrics, 127 (4), e1073-1076.

Bandeira de Sa, NN, Gubert, MB, dos Santos, W, & Santos, LMP (2016). Factors related to health services determine breastfeeding within one hour of birth in the Federal District of Brazil, 2011. Rev Bras Epidemiol, 19 (3), 509-526.

Bartocci, M, Winberg, J, Ruggerio, C, Bergqvist, LL, Serra, G, & Lagercrantz, H (2000). Activation of olfactory cortex in newborn infants after odor stimulation: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. Pediatric Research, 48(1), 18-23.

Beilin, Y, Bodian, CA, Weiser, S, et al. (2005). Effect of labor epidural anesthesia with and without fentanyl on infant breast-feeding: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Anesthesiology, 103 (6), 1211-1217.

Beiranvand S, Valizadeh F, Hosseinabadi R & Pournia Y (2014). The effects of skin-to-skin contact on temperature and breastfeeding successfulness in full-term newborns after caesarean delivery. International Journal of Pediatrics, volume 2014, article ID 846486, 7 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/846486.

Bergström A, Okong P & Ransjö-Arvidson A-B (2007). Immediate maternal thermal response to skin-to-skin care of the newborn. Acta Paediatrica, 96 (5), 655-658.

Bigelow A, Power M MacLellan-Peters J, Alex M & McDonald C (2012). Effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on postpartum depressive symptoms and maternal physiological stress. JOGNN, 41 (3), 369-382.

Bigelow AE & Powers M (2012). The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants’ response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age. Infant Behavior and Development, 35 (1), 240-251.

Blomqvist YT, Nyqvist KH. Swedish mothers’ experience of continuous Kangaroo Mother CareJ Clin Nurs. 2011 May;20(9-10):1472-80.

Blomqvist YT, Rubertsson C, Kylberg E, Jöreskog K, Nyqvist KH. Kangaroo Mother Care helps fathers of preterm infants gain confidence in the paternal roleJ Adv Nurs. 2011 Nov 23.

BMJ Kangaroo Mother Care, an example to follow from developing countries 2004;329:1179

Bramson PH, Lee JW, Moore E, Montgomery S, Neish C, Bahjri K & Melcher CL (2010). Effect of early skin-to-skin mother-infant contact during the first 3 hours following birth on exclusive breastfeeding during the maternity hospital stay. Journal of Human Lactation, 26 (2), 130-137.

Brimdyr, K, Caldwell, K, Widström, A-M, Svensson, K, & Phillips, R (2019). The effect of labor medications on normal newborn behavior in the first hour after birth: A prospective cohort study. Early Human Development, 132, 30-36.

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Velandia M, Uvnäs-Moberg K & Nissen E (2012). Sex differences in newborn interaction with mother or father during skin-to-skin contact after caesarean section. Acta Paediatrica, 101 (4), 360-376.

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Velandia M, Uvnäs-Moberg K, Nissen E. Sex differences in newborn interaction with mother or father during skin-to-skin contact after Caesarean sectionActa Paediatr. 2012 Apr;101(4):360-7.

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Vincent S. Skin-to-skin contact. Part two: the evidence. Pract Midwife. 2011 Jun;14(6):44-6. Review.

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Widström A-M, Brimdyr, K, Svensson, K, Caldwell, K, & Nissen, E (2019). Skin-to-skin contact the first hour after birth, underlying implications and clinical practice. Acta Paediatrica, 108 (7), 1192-1204.

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World Health Organization /UNICEF (2018). Implementation Guidance: protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity and newborn services: the revised Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Geneva: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272943.

World Health Organization (2017). Guideline: Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding in facilities providing maternity and newborn services. Geneva: WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/259386.

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Yuksel B, Ital I, Balaban O, Kocak E, Seven A, Kucur SK, Erbakirci M & Keskin N (2015). Immediate breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact during caesarean section decreases maternal oxidative stress, a prospective randomized case-controlled study. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 29 (16), 2691-2696.

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Zhang, F, Cheng, J, Yan, S, W, H, & Bai, T (2019). Early feeding behaviors and breastfeeding outcomes after caesarean section. Breastfeeding Medicine, 14 (5), 325-335. Bébés sont séparés donc pas de peau-à-peau immédiat.

VIDEOS:

  • Widström AM, Ransjö-Arvidson AB & Christensson K (1993). Breastfeeding is baby’s choice. Produced at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm. Available in different languages via The Healthy Children Project.
  • Skin_to_Skin Angus L. Macdonald Library
  • Skin-to-skin in the first hour after birth: Practical advice for staff after vaginal and cesarean birth (2010). Available in different languages via The Healthy Children Project.
  • The magical hour. Holding your baby skin-to-skin in the first hour after birth (2011). Available in different languages via The Healthy Children Project. Available at: www.healthychildren.cc; USA, phone : 508-888-8044

Referencias sobre cargar el bebé

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Sears, W. Sling Babies

Sears, W. What Babywearing Means: Our Story

Zolowear Wearing

Referencias sobre envolver al bebé (Swaddling)

Bystrova, K., Matthiesen, A. S., Widstrom, A. M., Ransjo-Arvidson, A. B., Welles-Nystrom, B., Vorontsov, I., et al. (2007). The effect of Russian Maternity Home routines on breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss with special reference to swaddling. Early Human Development, 83(1), 29-39.

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Franco, P., Seret, N., Van Hees, J. N., Scaillet, S., Groswasser, J., & Kahn, A. (2005). Influence of swaddling on sleep and arousal characteristics of healthy infants. Pediatrics, 115(5), 1307-1311.

McDonnell, E. ,Moon, R , (2014) Infant deaths and injuries associated with wearable blankets, swaddle wraps and swaddling. J Pediatr. 2014 May; 164(5): 1152–1156.

Mohrbacher N Rethinking Swaddling International Journal of Childbirth Education Volume 25 Number 3 September 2010

Mohrbacher N Blog

Pease AS, Fleming PJ, Hauck FR, et al. (2016). Swaddling and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: A meta- analysis. Pediatrics, 137 (6), e20153275.

Smith L Presentation Impact of Swaddling on Breastfeeding Infants, 2011

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Yurdakok K, Yavuz T, Taylor CE. Swaddling and acute respiratory infections. Am J Public Health. 1990 Jul;80(7):873-5.